Breast cancer causes

Breast cancer causes, symptoms and treatment

Breast cancer is cancer that develops in the cells of the intestine. Breast cancer occurs when cells in your breast grow and divide in an uncontrolled way to form tissue called a tumor or cancer. Symptoms of breast cancer may include a lump in your breast, changes in breast size, and changes in the skin of the breast. Breast cancer causes, symptoms and treatment

 

 

 

 

 

 

Signs and Symptoms of Breast Cancer:

A breast lump or thickening that feels separate from the surrounding tissue. Changes in breast size, shape, or appearance. Changes in the skin over the breast.

Peeling, scaling, covering or unloading of the nipple (areola) or pigmented area of ​​breast skin.

Greenish skin or spots on your breasts, such as orange peel

 

 

 

 

 

 

When to see a doctor?

If you notice a lump or any other change in your breast – consult your doctor for immediate evaluation.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

What are the types of breast cancer?

There are different types of breast cancer, including:

Infiltrating ductal carcinoma

Ductal carcinoma
Starting in your breast milk ducts, this cancer invades the walls of your ducts and spreads to surrounding breast tissue.

It is the most common type of breast cancer, making up about 80% of all cases.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ductal carcinoma in situ

Stage 0, also called breast cancer, medical carcinoma in situ is considered by some to be pre-cancer, because the cells have not spread beyond your milk ducts.

This condition is very easy to treat.

However, immediate care is needed to prevent the cancer from becoming aggressive and spreading to other tissues.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Infiltrating lobular carcinoma

This cancer forms in the lobule of your breast (where breast milk is produced) and has spread to surrounding breast tissue. It accounts for 10% to 15% of breast cancers.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lobular carcinoma in situ

This is a precancerous condition in which there are abnormal cells in the lobules of your breast.

It is not true cancer, but this marker can indicate the possibility of breast cancer later.

Therefore, regular clinical breast examinations and mammograms are important for women with lobular carcinoma.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC)

Triple negative breast cancer is one of the most challenging breast cancers to treat.

It is called triple negative because it does not have three markers like other breast cancers.

It is very difficult to predict and treat.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Inflammatory breast cancer

Rare and aggressive, this type of cancer resembles infection. People with inflammatory breast cancer commonly notice redness, swelling, peeling, and dimpling of their breast skin.

This is caused by cancer cells blocking the lymph vessels in their skin.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Paget’s disease of the breast

This cancer affects the skin of your nipple and areola (the skin around your breast).

 

 

 

 

 

 

Is there a possibility of cancer in other parts of the breast?

Breast cancer when we usually say cancer that forms in milk ducts or lobules.

However, cancer can develop in other parts of your breast, but this type of cancer is usually less common. This may include:

 

 

 

 

 

 

Angiosarcoma

This rare type of cancer starts in the cells that line the blood or lymphatic vessels.

Phyllodes tumor. Beginning in connective tissue, phyllodes tumors are rare.

They are usually benign (non-cancerous), but in some cases they can be malignant (cancerous).

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hereditary breast cancer

  • Doctors estimate that about 5 to 10 percent of breast cancers are linked to gene mutations passed down through generations in a family.
  • Many inherited mutated genes have been identified that can increase the risk of breast cancer.
  • The best known are breast cancer gene 1 (BRCA1) and breast cancer gene 2 (BRCA2), which significantly increase the risk of both breast and ovarian cancer.
  • If you have a strong family history of breast cancer or other cancers, your doctor may do a blood test to help detect specific mutations in BRCA or other genes that run in your family.
  • Ask your doctor for a referral to a genetic counselor, who can review your family health.
  • A genetic counselor can also discuss the benefits, risks, and limitations of genetic testing so that you can make an informed decision.

 

Risk factors

Breast cancer risk factors are anything that makes you more likely to develop breast cancer.

But having one or even more breast cancer risk factors does not mean you will develop breast cancer. Many women get breast cancer for no other reason than just being women.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Factors that increase the risk of breast cancer include:

to be a woman
Women are more likely to develop breast cancer than men.

Aging
The risk of breast cancer increases as you age.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Because of the breast’s own condition

If you have had a breast biopsy that found lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) or atypical hyperplasia of the breast, your risk of breast cancer is increased.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Breast cancer has its own causes

If you have breast cancer in one breast, you are at risk of developing cancer in the other breast.

 

 

 

 

Family causes of breast cancer

If your mother, sister, or daughter was diagnosed with breast cancer, especially at a young age, your risk of breast cancer increases. Still, most people with breast cancer have no family history of the disease.

 

 

 

 

Inherited genes that cause cancer

Some gene mutations that increase the risk of breast cancer can be passed from parents to children. The most well-known gene mutations are called BRCA1 and BRCA2.

These genes can increase your risk of breast cancer and other cancers.

 

 

 

 

 

Due to radiation

If you received radiation treatment to your chest as a child or young adult, your risk of breast cancer increases.

obesity
Obesity is another risk factor for breast cancer.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Having your periods at a younger age

Starting your period before the age of 12 is a risk factor for breast cancer.

Early onset of menopause
If you start menopause at an older age, you are more likely to develop breast cancer.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Having your first child at an older age

Women who have their first child after age 30 may have an increased risk of breast cancer.

was not pregnant
Women who have never been pregnant have a higher risk of breast cancer than women who have had one or more pregnancies.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Postmenopausal hormone therapy

Women who take hormone therapy drugs that combine estrogen and progesterone to treat the signs and symptoms of menopause have an increased risk of breast cancer. If women stop taking this drug, the risk of breast cancer decreases.

Smoking/drinking
Smoking or drinking alcohol increases your risk of breast cancer.

 

 

 

 

 

 

How is breast cancer treated?

  • There are different types of treatment for breast cancer, including surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone therapy, immunotherapy, and targeted drug therapy.
  • Which one is right for you depends on many factors, including the location and size of the tumor, the results of your lab tests, and whether the cancer has spread to other parts of your body.
  • Your healthcare provider will tailor your treatment plan to your unique needs. It is also not uncommon to receive a combination of different treatments.

 

 

Breast cancer surgery

Breast cancer surgery involves removing the cancerous part of your breast and a portion of the normal tissue surrounding the tumor. There are different types of surgery depending on your condition, including:

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lumpectomy

This is called a partial mastectomy, a lumpectomy that removes the tumor and a small margin of healthy tissue around it.

Usually, some lymph nodes – in your breast or under your arm – are also removed for evaluation. People who have a lumpectomy are often given radiation therapy in the weeks following the procedure.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mastectomy

Another option is to have your breasts removed entirely. In some cases, doctors may perform a nipple-sparing mastectomy to preserve your nipple and areola (the dark skin around your breast). Many women choose to undergo breast reconstruction immediately or after their mastectomy.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sentinel node biopsy

  • Because early detection of breast cancer results in the majority of lymph nodes being negative (for cancer), sentinel node biopsies were develope to prevent the unnecessary removal of large numbers of lymph nodes not associate with cancer.
  • To identify sentinel lymph nodes, doctors inject a dye that first tracks the lymph nodes where the cancer will spread.
  • If that lymph node is cancer-free, no other lymph nodes need to be remove. Additional lymph nodes may need to be remove if cancer is present in that lymph node.
  • Often, more than one sentinel node is detect, but fewer lymph nodes decrease the chance of swelling in your arm (lymphedema). A sentinel lymph node biopsy can be done with either a lumpectomy or a mastectomy.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Axillary lymph node dissection

If multiple lymph nodes are involve with cancer, an axillary lymph node dissection may be performed to remove them. This means removing a large number of lymph nodes under your arm (your axilla).

 

 

 

 

 

Modified radical mastectomy

During this procedure, your entire breast is remove, except for your nipple.

The lymph nodes around your underarms are also remove, but your chest muscles are intact. Breast reconstruction can often be an option if desired. Breast cancer causes, symptoms and treatment

 

 

 

 

 

Radical mastectomy

  • This procedure is rarely perform today unless the breast cancer has spread to the muscles of your chest wall.
  • During a radical mastectomy, your surgeon removes your entire breast, your nipples, underarm lymph nodes, and chest wall muscles.
  • Those undergoing this procedure may also opt for breast reconstruction. Breast cancer causes, symptoms and treatment

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *